Category: Sports

SPECIAL RULES FOR OLYMPIC GAMES

Kayak

In a kayak, the paddler is seated in the direction of travel, and uses a double-bladed paddle. Kayaks have a rudder for steering and course adjustment, which is operated by the feet of the paddler in the front. The paddle used is usually a ‘wing paddle’ (although standard asymmetrical paddles can also be used) – wing paddles have blades which are shaped to resemble a wing or spoon, creating lift and increasing the power and stability of the stroke. There are many variations of said wing paddles, ranging from longer and narrower options for more stability throughout the entire stroke to more extreme ‘teardrop’ shaped paddles for a firmer application of power at the start of the stroke.

Canoe

In a canoe the paddler kneels on one knee with the other leg forward and foot flat on the floor of the boat, and paddles a single-bladed paddle on one side only with what is known as a ‘J-stroke’ to control the boat’s direction.[3] In Canada, a racing class exists for the C-15 or WC or “War Canoe“, as well as a similarly designed C-4 (which is much shorter and more squat than an ‘International’ C-4). An antiquated boat class is the C-7, resembling a large C4 which was debuted by the ICF with little success. For racing canoes, the blade is typically short and broad, with a ‘power face’ on one side that is either flat or scalloped out. The shaft will typically be longer than a tripping canoe paddle, because the kneeling position puts the paddler higher above the surface of the water. More recent designs of canoe racing paddles often have a slight bent shaft, commonly 12-14 degrees. (a concept of canoe designer Eugene Jensen in the 1960s). Many high-performance canoe paddlers prefer the feel of a wooden handle with a carbon fiber shaft and blade, while nearly all high-performance kayak paddlers use paddles made completely of carbon fiber

APPLICATION AND PROGRAMME [GR]
Applications, entries and programme for Olympic Games shall be in
accordance with the rules of the IOC.
Any rule not regulated by the IOC is subject to the relevant ICF rule.
JURY, COMPETITION COMMITTEE AND
OFFICIALS [GR]
In accordance with article 37.
DRAWING OF LOTS [TR]
Drawing of lots shall take place at a time and under the supervision of
persons approved by the IOC.
HEATS AND INTERVALS [TR]
Division into heats shall take place according to the system specified in
articles 35 and 38.
RANKING SYSTEM [TR]
In accordance with IOC System.
COURSE [TR]
In accordance with article 18.
START AND EQUIPMENT [TR]
In accordance with article 22 and 40.
ICF Canoe Sprint Competition Rules 2017
PHOTO-FINISH – TIME KEEPING [TR]
In accordance with article 41.
CHECKING OF BOATS AND EQUIPMENT [TR]
In accordance with article 42.
No form of publicity or propaganda, commercial or otherwise, may appear
on sportswear, accessories or, more generally, on any article of clothing
or equipment whatsoever worn or used by the athletes or other
participants in the Olympic Games.
Boats, accessories and clothing may carry advertising symbols, trademarks
or emblems and words for the identification of the manufacturer of the
article or equipment concerned, provided that such identification shall
not exceed total surface area designated suitable by the IOC.
The word “ identification “ means the normal display of the name,
designation, trademark, logo or any other distinctive sign of the actual
manufacturer of the item only. Third party branding of an article of
equipment or clothing is not permitted. The identification can appear
only once per item unless specified by the IOC.
The uniform of the competitors and all persons holding an official position
may include the flag of their NOC Olympic emblem or, with the consent of
the OCOG, the OCOG Olympic emblem. The ICF officials may wear the
uniform and the emblem of the International Federation.
Any boat, accessory or article of clothing, which does not comply with the
above conditions, will be ineligible for use during the competition. Teams
are responsible for their own equipment.
For a new boat design to be eligible for the Olympic Games the same boat
design must have passed the official boat control at the World
Championships the year prior to the Olympic Games.
At the Olympic Games the names of the competitors will be placed on the
side of the boats. The names (letters) on the stickers should be placed
just below the cockpit. The precise positioning will be determined by the
ICF Technical Delegate.
ICF Canoe Sprint Competition Rules 2017
The dimension of the names on the stickers will be a minimum of 6 cm
high and will be black letters on white background. The font should be
“Arial Black” all in capital letters with first name or initial followed by
family name.
These stickers will be provided by the Organising Committee. They will
be applied by the ICF Officials at the first Boat Control.

Cycling Track

CYCLING ON WOODEN INDOOR TRACKS REGULARLY DREW LARGE CROWDS AS EARLY AS 1870 AND WAS INCLUDED IN THE INAUGURAL OLYMPICS GAMES.

WOODEN INDOOR TRACKS

As early as 1870, track races in England were regularly attracting large crowds. The riders competed on wooden indoor tracks that closely resembled the modern velodromes of today. Such tracks ensured the event could be competed all year round. But for promoters there was an even greater benefit – spectators could be charged an entrance fee!

OLYMPIC HISTORY

Track cycling events have been organised at all the editions of the Games since 1896, with the exception of the 1912 Games in Stockholm, when only the road race was staged. Between 1924 and 1992, the range of events was generally as follows: sprint, time trial over one kilometre, tandem and team pursuit. The individual pursuit was added to the programme of the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo, and the tandem was dropped after the 1972 Games in Munich.

Women have competed in the track events since the Seoul Games in 1988, the year that marked the appearance of women in the sprint event, followed by the individual pursuit in 1992. At the Sydney Games in 2000, several track events were introduced: 500m time trial for women, but also keirin, American and sprint for men.

Cycling

CYCLING HAS PROVED INCREDIBLY POPULAR EVER SINCE BICYCLES WERE INVENTED IN THE MID-18TH CENTURY. IT HAS FEATURED IN EVERY OLYMPIC GAMES.

EARLY POPULARITY

Bicycles were first developed in the mid-18th century and have been a popular form of transport ever since.

BIG LEAP FORWARD

In 1885, cycling took a big leap forward when J.K. Starley devised the chain-and-gearing system. Since then, engineers have embraced modern technology to build ever faster, sleeker and lighter bikes.

POPULAR IN EUROPE

From 1880 to 1900, cycling became immensely popular both in Europe and the United States. The professional sport maintained its place in the public imagination, especially in Europe. Over the last 20 years, road cycling has experienced an movement towards globalization.

OLYMPIC HISTORY

Like fencing and athletics, cycling is among the rare sports that have always featured on the Olympic programme. Road cycling, however, was not on the programme of the Paris 1900, St Louis 1904 or London 1908 Games.

The first road event in Olympic history took place in 1896 on the marathon route at the first Games of the modern era in Athens. The race started in Athens, headed towards Marathon, then returned to Athens, at the Phaliron velodrome.

Since the 1912 Games in Stockholm, the individual pursuit has been organised at each edition of the Games. The team time trial was on the programme between 1912 and 1992. 1996 marked the debut of the individual time trial at the Olympic Games in Atlanta.

Olympic cycling was added to the women’s programme in Los Angeles in 1984, with an individual road event. Later, in 1996, the individual time trial was included in women’s Olympic cycling, as it for the men’s.

The Europeans have always dominated Olympic cycling, particularly through the contribution of the French and Italians. Eastern European countries have also won many Olympic medals, especially in track cycling.

Olympic History of Cycling Mountain Biking

IN THE 1970S, TOUGH NEW BIKES THAT RELISHED ROUGH TERRAIN WERE DEVELOPED AND MOUNTAIN BIKING WAS BORN. THE SPORT STARTED IN CALIFORNIA BUT ITS POPULARITY SOON SPREAD.

A SPORT IS BORN

In the 1970s, mountain biking developed as a fringe sport in California. Taking a bike off-road was nothing new but the development of a new bike that relished such terrain was; these bikes had fatter tyres, rapid-shift gears, drum brakes and ground-breaking suspension. These bikes gave thrill seeking cyclists a much more freedom and the sport of mountain biking was born.

REPACK DOWNHILL RACE

The members of the Velo Club Mount Tamalpais in California generally receive the credit for establishing mountain biking as a sport. They invented the Repack Downhill race, held regularly between 1976 and 1979 just across the famous Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. The races attracted riders from near and far, and the media soon started taking an interest.

OLYMPIC HISTORY

The first national mountain bike championships were held in 1983 in the USA. But the sport quickly grew in popularity in Europe and Australia. The first mountain bike World Championships, recognised by the International Cycling Union (UCI), were organised in 1990. Olympic recognition followed and mountain biking made its debut as an Olympic discipline at the Atlanta Games in 1996, with a cross-country event for men and women. The programme has remained unchanged ever since.
Among the big names in this discipline is France’s Julien Absalon, a two-time gold-medal winner – in 2004 in Athens and in 2008 in Beijing.

Canoe Slalom in Olympic

AS WITH CANOE SPRINT, CANOE SLALOM ALSO UTILISES CANOES AND KAYAKS, HOWEVER THERE ARE SOME SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES. THE SPORT WAS MODELLED FROM SKI SLALOM AND BEGAN IN SWITZERLAND IN 1932. IN ITS EARLY DAYS, IT WAS FIRST PERFORMED ON FLAT WATER, BUT LATER SWITCHED TO WHITE WATER RAPIDS.

VARIETY OF CRAFTS

While canoe slalom basically uses the same type of craft as canoe sprint, the boats are designed differently. While in canoe sprint the boats are long and streamlined, in canoe slalom the boats are small, light and agile, allowing for greater manoeuvrability through the rapids.

FIRST COMPETITION

Canoe slalom became popular shortly before World War II with the first known competition occurring in 1933. The first International Federation to govern canoeing was the Internationale Repräsentantschaft für Kanusport (IRK) founded in 1924. After World War II, this organisation was succeeded by the International Canoe Federation (ICF) which governs both canoe sprint and canoe slalom as well as six other canoeing disciplines. It is located in Lausanne.

OLYMPIC HISTORY

Canoe and kayak racing became full medal sports at the 1936 Berlin Games. However events were initially limited to canoe sprint until canoe slalom made its debut at the 1972 Munich Games. Slalom racing was not competed again in the Olympic Games until the 1992 Barcelona Games. Canoe slalom racers compete in four events, three for men and one for women, over the same course.

Beach volleyball

BEACH VOLLEYBALL STARTED OUT IN CALIFORNIA AS A PASTIME. DUE TO ITS POPULAR APPEAL IT DEVELOPED INTO A THRIVING PROFESSIONAL SPORT

FAMILY FUN

Beach volleyball first appeared in the early 1920s in Santa Monica, California. Then what started out as just some family fun became a sport spreading rapidly across the world. By the 1930s, the game had reached countries like Czechoslovakia, Latvia and Bulgaria.

DEPRESSION FREE

Interestingly, beach volleyball really took off in the United States during the 1930s, perhaps as a little light relief from the Great Depression. The first official two-man tournament took place in 1947, and the first beach volleyball circuit, involving hundreds of players and five California beaches, began in the 1950s.

POPULAR CULTURE

However it was the crossover with popular culture that really launched the sport. In the 1960s, The Beatles appeared at the legendary Sorrento Beach in Los Angeles for a quick hit and US President John F. Kennedy even went to watch a game. Its cool image was a sponsor’s dream and prize money soon poured into the sport.

OLYMPIC NEWCOMER

Beach volleyball made its Olympic debut at the 1996 Atlanta Games. USA and Brazil shared all the gold medals in the subsequent four editions, except in Sydney where the Australian women’s team dominated.

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